There are approximately 100,000 hairs on the scalp and a hair has an average life span of 4 to 7 years. Up to 80 hair loss a day was assumed to be the norm. The above data shows that a statistical person should have full head hair until old age.
Acquired alopecia is divided into primary (non-scarring) and secondary (scarring) and chemical-induced alopecia. The most common forms of primary alopecia are alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia in men and women.
Alopecia areata begins suddenly, with a single circular focus in the first stage. Usually, new lesions appear, the scalp may become completely bald or the hair may even lose evenly. Alopecia areata can be caused by disorders of the intra-secretory glands, autoimmune disease, inflammatory foci, psychosomatic disorders and others. The doctor should find the cause and recommend adequate treatment, which will reverse the baldness.
The direct causes of androgenetic alopecia are hair and skin diseases which result in the formation and irreversibility of alopecia. The cause may be mechanical injuries, 2nd and 3rd degree burns, severe forms of herpes zoster, some mycoses, bacterial diseases, lupus erythematosus, lichen planus and others. In such cases, it is necessary to identify the underlying disease and implement appropriate therapy.
Chemical damage to hair can be caused by heavy metal poisoning: mercury, lead, use of certain medications, antibiotics, hair dyes, ammonia, perhydrol and many others.
The main problem is hair loss caused by exogenous factors, approximately 70% in people is affected. Endogenous factors are mainly genetically determined hormonal and metabolic disorders. We encounter exogenous factors in our everyday life, they include, among others: inadequate diet, air pollution, solar radiation and states of emotional tension. They damage the hair follicles to varying degrees, which leads to excessive hair loss and alopecia. In people with a genetically determined tendency to baldness, the action of exogenous factors contributes to the aggravation of the disease.
The toxic effect of the above-mentioned factors is based on the release of an excessive amount of free oxygen radicals in the body. This leads to what is known as oxidative stress.